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While their early settlements in West Africa were in the vicinity of the tri-border point of present-day Mali, Senegal, and Mauritania, they are now, after centuries of gradual migrations and conquests, spread throughout a wide band of West and Central Africa.

The Fulani People occupy a vast geographical expanse located roughly in a longitudinal East-West band immediately south of the Sahara, and just north of the coastal rain forest and swamps.

There are an estimated million Fulani people. The pastoral Fulani move around with their cattle throughout the year. Typically, they do not stay around for long stretches not more than 2—4 months at a time.

Settled Fulani live in villages, towns, and cities permanently and have given up nomadic life completely, in favor of an urban one.

These processes of settlement, concentration, and military conquest led to the existence of organized and long-established communities of Fulani, varying in size from small villages to towns.

In most of these communities, the Fulani are usually perceived as a ruling class. Accordingly, the Western groups are the most divergent from the Eastern groups and vice versa.

Overall, however, all share most cultural practices to a large extent. In Ghana, the exact number of Fulani is unknown due to systematic oppression that includes not counting the Fulani in the Ghanan census.

This reflects widespread discrimination and negative stereotypes about the Fulani. The origins of the Fulani people are unclear and various theories have been postulated.

As a nomadic herding people, they have moved through and among many other cultures. Skutsch notes that their oral histories point toward a start in Jordan or farther east, but also that their language comes from the Senegambian region.

He concludes that the modern Fulani people began in the northern Senegambian region. The ethnogenesis of the Fulani people may have begun as a result of interactions between an ancient West African population and North African populations such as Berbers or Egyptians.

Scholars specializing in Fulani culture believe that some of the imagery depicts rituals that are still practised by contemporary Fulani people.

At the Tin Tazarift site, for instance, historian Amadou Hampate Ba recognized a scene of the 'lotori' ceremony, a celebration of the ox's aquatic origin.

In a finger motif, Ba detected an allusion to the myth of the hand of the first Fulani herdsman, Kikala. At Tin Felki, Ba recognized a hexagonal carnelian jewel as related to the Agades cross, a fertility charm still used by Fulani women.

There are also details in the paintings which correspond to elements from Fulani myths taught during the initiation rites like the hermaphroditic cow.

The Fulani initiation field is depicted graphically with the sun surrounded by a circle lined up with heads of cows as different phases of the moon at the bottom and surmounted by a male and a female figures.

The female figure even has a hanging braid of hair to the back. Though no exact dates have been established for the paintings they are undoubtedly much earlier than the historic times when the Fulani were first noticed in Western Sahara.

The Fulani may have been involved in the formation of a state with its capital at Takrur which is suggested to have had influx of Fulani migrating from the east and settling in the Senegal valley.

Fulani culture continued to emerge in the area of the upper Niger and Senegal Rivers. While the initial expansionist groups were small, they soon increased in size due to the availability of grazing lands in the Sahel and the lands that bordered it to the immediate south.

Fulani towns were a direct result of nomadic heritage and were often founded by individuals who had simply chosen to settle in a given area instead of continuing on their way.

This cultural interaction most probably occurred in Senegal , where the closely linguistically related Toucouleur, Serer and Wolof people predominate, ultimately leading to the ethnogenesis of the Fulani culture, language and people before subsequent expansion throughout much of West Africa.

Another version is that they were originally a Berber speaking people who crossed Senegal to pasture their cattle on the Ferlo Desert south of the Senegal River.

Finding themselves cut off from their kinsmen by the other communities now occupying the fertile Senegal valley, they gradually adopted the language of their new neighbours.

As their herds increased, small groups found themselves forced to move eastward and further southwards and so initiated a series of migrations throughout West Africa, which endures to the present day.

Evidence of Fulani migration as a whole, from the Western to Eastern Sudan is very fragmentary. Delafosse, one of the earliest enquirers into Fulani history and customs, principally relying on oral tradition, estimated that Fulani migrants left Fuuta-Tooro, and Macina, towards the east, between the eleventh and the fourteenth centuries.

Their presence in Baghirmi was later recorded when Fulani fought as allies, to Dokkenge or Birni Besif, when he founded Massenya a Chadian town , early in the 16th century.

By the end of the 18th century, Fulani settlements were dotted all over the Benue River valley and its tributaries.

They spread eastwards towards Garoua and Rey Bouba , and southwards towards the Faro River , to the foot of the Mambilla Plateau , which they would later ascend in subsequent years.

The heaviest concentrations of their settlements were at Gurin, Chamba territory, Cheboa, Turua and Bundang.

These so-called "Benue-Fulani" reduced the frequency with which they moved from place to place. The number of years they stayed at one spot depended on two factors: the reaction of the earlier settlers of that locality to their presence, and how satisfactory the conditions were, i.

Fula people, with Arabic and North African roots, adopted Islam early. According to David Levison, adopting Islam made the Fulani feel a "cultural and religious superiority to surrounding peoples, and that adoption became a major ethnic boundary marker" between them and other African ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa.

In , Askia Muhammad led the Fulani people from western Sudan, and over time gained control of much that was previously Songhai empire, removing Sonni Baru who had attempted to protect the interests of pastoralists.

The Fulani, after being the first group of people in West Africa to convert to Islam, became active in supporting Islamic theology and ideology from centres such as Timbuktu.

The Fula people led many jihads, or holy wars, some of which were major. Futa Toro was established in the s, by Denianke dynasty built out of Fulani and Mandinka forces; the importance of Fula people to this rule led to this era known as Empire of Great Fulo.

Futa Bundu, sometimes called Bondu and located in Senegal and Faleme rivers confluence, became a centre for the rise of West Africa-wide Fula empire and influence in 17th century.

From the 18th century onwards, the frequency of Jihads increased such as those led by Ibrahim Sori and Karamoko Ali in , the Fulani became a hegemonic force and were politically dominant in many areas.

The Moroccans invaded the western Sahel adding to an anarchical situation. Food production plummeted, and during this periods famine plagued the region, negatively affecting the political situation and increasing the trigger for militant control of the economic activity.

The first ruler took the title of Almaami and resided in Timbo , near the modern-day town of Mamou. The town became the political capital of the newly formed Imamate, with the religious capital was located in Fugumba.

The newly formed imamate was mostly located mainly in present-day Guinea, but also spanned parts of modern-day Guinea Bissau, Senegal, and Sierra Leone.

Later, due to strife between two branches of the Seediayanke royal lineage, the Soriya and the Alphaya , [59] a system for the rotation of office between these branches was set up.

This led to an almost permanent state of civil strife since none of the parties was inclined to respect the system, which considerably weakened the power of the political centre.

This jihad was inspired by events in northern Nigeria where an important scholar of the time, Usman Dan Fodio, established an Islamic empire with Sokoto as its capital.

For some time, groups of Fulbe had been dominant in parts of the delta, thereby creating a complex hierarchy dating back through several waves of conquest.

However, due to internecine warfare, they were never able to organize a countervailing force against the Bamana Kingdom. In , an Islamic cleric named Aamadu Hammadi Buubu united the Fulbe under the banner of Islam and fought a victorious battle against the Bamana and their allies.

He subsequently established his rule in the Inland Delta and the adjacent dry lands east and west of the delta. This state appears to have had tight control over its core area, as evidenced by the fact that its political and economic organization is still manifested today in the organization of agricultural production in the Inland Delta.

Despite its power and omnipresence, the hegemony of the emirate was constantly threatened. During the reign of Aamadu Aamadu, the grandson of Sheeku Aamadu, internal contradictions weakened the emirate until it became easy prey for the forces of the Futanke , which subsequently overthrew the Maasina Emirate, in Many regard the Futanke or Toucouleur conquest of western Sudan and central Mali as a reform movement.

The character of the Futanke Emirate was somewhat different, although its founding was related to the conquest of the Maasina Emirate and the Bamana Kingdoms of Segou and Kaarta in the aftermath of a movement for reform.

Threatened by French colonial forces while at the same time being supplied with firearms by them, the Futanke staged a jihad to fight paganism and the competing Islamic brotherhood of the Tijannya.

Its founder, El Hadj Umar Tall an Islamic reformer originating from the Fuuta Tooro on the banks of the Senegal River, died fighting against rebels shortly after his forces defeated the Maasina Emirate.

After El Hadj Umar's death, the emirate was divided into three states, each ruled by one of his sons. These three states had their capitals respectively in the towns of Nioro , Segou and Bandiagara.

A most important distinction was between noblemen free people and the non-free Rimmaibe or Maccube. The noblemen consisted of the ruling class of political overlords and Islamic clerics, as well as the pastoral Fulbe populations, who helped them come to power.

Together, they formed a group of vassals to the political elite and were considered noblemen, although, in reality, their political influence was minimal.

The conquered populations were reduced to servitude or slavery and more slaves were captured to provide enough labour for the functioning of the economy.

Also, there were groups of bards, courtiers and artisans who occupied lower political and social positions. The Sokoto Caliphate was by far the largest and most successful legacy of Fulani power in Western Africa.

It was the largest, as well as the most well-organized, of the Fulani Jihad states. Throughout the 19th century, Sokoto was one of the largest and most powerful empires in West Africa until , when defeated by European colonial forces.

The Sokoto Caliphate included several emirates, the largest of which was Adamawa , although the Kano Emirate was the most populated.

While establishing their hegemony, the Fulbe defined a strict social hierarchy and imposed limitations on economic and trading activities, the purpose of which was to ensure a constant flow of tax revenue and commodities to the state apparatus and the standing army, especially for the cavalry.

The freedom for pastoralists to move around was curtailed to ensure the smooth functioning of other production activities, such as cereal cultivation and, in the case of Maasina, of fishing activities.

There appears to be considerable resistance to the forced acceptance of Islam by these emirates.

For example, many nomadic Fulbe, predominantly Wodaabe fled northern Nigeria when their liberty was curtailed and they were forced to convert to Islam following the jihads instigated by Usman Dan Fodio from Sokoto.

Conversion to Islam meant not only changing one's religion but also submitting to rules dealing with every aspect of social, political and cultural life, intrusions with which many nomadic Fulbe were not comfortable.

The Fulani and Hausa people have taken some influences from each other's cultures. They dress and speak like their Hausa neighbours and live in the same form see Hausa—Fulani.

This Hausa—Fulani interaction is uncommon outside the eastern subregion of West Africa. The Toucouleur people in the central Senegal River valley are closely related to the Fula people.

During the medieval era, they paid a tribute to the Fula. Large numbers of other Fula-speakers live scattered in the region and have a lower status.

They are descendants of Fula-owned slaves. Now legally emancipated, in some regions they still pay tribute to Fula elites, and they are often denied chances for upward social mobility.

As such, Fulani culture includes people who may or may not be ethnic Fulani. Fula society features the caste divisions typical of the West African region.

There is the artisan caste, [66] including blacksmiths, potters, griots , [68] genealogists, woodworkers, and dressmakers. They belong to castes but are free people.

The Fulani castes are endogamous in nature, meaning individuals marry only within their caste. This caste system, however, wasn't as elaborate in places like northern Nigeria , Eastern Niger or Cameroon.

Though very high, these figures are representative of many other emirates of the Sokoto Caliphate , of which Adamawa formed a part. The Fulani are traditionally a nomadic , pastoralist trading people.

They herd cattle , goats and sheep across the vast dry hinterlands of their domain, keeping somewhat separate from the local agricultural populations.

They are the largest nomadic ethnic group in the world and inhabit several territories over an area larger in size than the continental United States.

The Fulani follow a code of behaviour known as pulaaku , which consists of the qualities of patience, self-control, discipline, prudence, modesty, respect for others including foes , wisdom, forethought, personal responsibility, hospitality, courage, and hard work.

Among the nomadic Fulani, women in their spare time make handicrafts including engraved gourds, weavings, knitting, beautifully made covers for calabashes known as mbeedu , and baskets.

The Fulani men are less involved in the production of crafts such as pottery, iron-working, and dyeing, unlike males from neighbouring ethnic groups around them.

The rearing of cattle is a principal activity in four of Cameroon's ten administrative regions as well as three other provinces with herding on a lesser scale, throughout the North and Central regions of Nigeria, as well as the entire Sahel and Sudan region.

Such conflicts usually begin when cattle have strayed into farmlands and destroyed crops. Thousands of Fulani have been forced to migrate from their traditional homelands in the Sahel, to areas further south, because of increasing encroachment of Saharan desertification.

Recurrent droughts have meant that a lot of traditional herding families have been forced to give up their nomadic way of life, losing a sense of their identity in the process.

Increasing urbanization has also meant that a lot of traditional Fulani grazing lands have been taken for developmental purposes, or forcefully converted into farmlands.

Fulani in Nigeria have often requested for the development of exclusive grazing reserves, to curb conflicts. Discussions among government officials, traditional rulers, and Fulani leaders on the welfare of the pastoralists have always centred on requests and pledges for protecting grazing spaces and cattle passages.

The growing pressure from Ardo'en the Fulani community leaders for the salvation of what is left of the customary grazing land has caused some state governments with large populations of herders such as Gombe, Bauchi, Adamawa, Taraba, Plateau, and Kaduna to include in their development plans the reactivation and preservation of grazing reserves.

Quick to grasp the desperation of cattle-keepers for land, the administrators have instituted a Grazing Reserve Committee to find a lasting solution to the rapid depletion of grazing land resources in Nigeria.

The Fulani believe that the expansion of the grazing reserves will boost livestock population, lessen the difficulty of herding, reduce seasonal migration, and enhance the interaction among farmers, pastoralists, and rural dwellers.

Despite these expectations, grazing reserves are not within the reach of about three-quarters of the nomadic Fulani in Nigeria, who number in the millions, and about sixty per cent of migrant pastoralists who use the existing grazing reserves keep to the same reserves every year.

The number and the distribution of the grazing reserves in Nigeria range from insufficient to severely insufficient for Fulani livestock.

In countries like Nigeria, Cameroon, and Burkina Faso where meat supplies are entirely dependent on the Fulani, such conflicts lead to scarcity and hikes in animal protein prices.

In recent times, the Nigerian senate and other lawmakers have been bitterly divided in attempts to pass bills on grazing lands and migration "corridors" for Fulani herdsmen.

This was mainly due to Southern and Central Nigerian lawmakers opposing the proposal, and Northern Lawmakers being in support.

Pair of Earrings; ; 3. Bracelet; made before ; red copper; 5. In some areas, e. There are three writing systems used to write this language: an Arabic derived one called Ajami , a Latin derived system with 6 sets, and a native phonetic-faithful system called Adlam recently invented in ; the third one is the most increasingly popular not only learnt by hundred thousands of people among the diaspora worldwide but has also apps and computer programs created to assist in the script's adoption.

Essentially viewed as what makes a person Fulani, or "Fulaniness", pulaaku includes:. There are no particular outfits for all Fulani sub-groups; dressing and clothing accessories such as ornaments mostly depend on the particular region.

The traditional dress of the Fulbe Wodaabe consists of long colourful flowing robes, modestly embroidered or otherwise decorated.

In the Futa Jallon highlands of central Guinea, it is common to see men wearing a distinctive hat with colorful embroidery.

In Nigeria, Cameroon and Niger, men wear a hat that tapers off at three angular tips, known as a noppiire. Both men and women wear a characteristic white or black cotton fabric gown, adorned with intricate blue, red and green thread embroidery work, with styles differing according to region and sex.

It is not uncommon to see the women decorate their hair with bead hair accessories as well as cowrie shells. Fula women often use henna for hand, arm and feet decorations.

Their long hair is put into five long braids that either hang or are sometimes looped on the sides. It is common for women and girls to have silver coins and amber attached to their braids.

Some of these coins are very old and have been passed down in the family. The women often wear many bracelets on their wrists.

The women can also be seen wearing a colorful cloth modjaare around, the waist, head or over one shoulder. Like the men, the women have markings on their faces around their eyes and mouths that they were given as children.

The Western Fulbe in countries like Mali, Senegal and Mauritania use indigo inks around the mouth, resulting in a blackening around the lips and gums.

Fulani men are often seen wearing solid-colored shirt and pants which go down to their lower calves, made from locally grown cotton, a long cloth wrapped around their faces, and a conical hat made from straw and leather on their turbans, and carrying their walking sticks across their shoulders with their arms resting on top of it.

They received these markings as children. Fula ethics are strictly governed by the notion of pulaaku. Women wear long robes with flowery shawls.

They decorate themselves with necklaces, earrings, nose rings and anklets. Fula are primarily known to be pastoralists , but are also traders in some areas.

Most Fula in the countryside spend long times alone on foot, and can be seen frequently parading with their cattle throughout the west African hinterland , moving their herds in search of water and better pasture.

They were, and still are, the only major migratory people group of West Africa, although the Tuareg people , another nomadic tribe of North African origin, live just immediately north of Fula territory, and sometimes live alongside the Fulani in countries such as Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso.

The Fulani, as a result of their constant wandering of the past, can be seen in every climatic zone and habitat of West Africa, from the deserts of the north, to the derived savannah and forests of the south.

These are the highest elevated places in West Africa, and their altitude can reach up to 8, feet above sea level. The highland plateaus have a more temperate climate conducive for cattle herding activities, which allowed Fulbe populations to settle there in waves of migrations from further west.

Though most Fula now live in towns or villages, a large proportion of the population is still either fully nomadic, or semi-nomadic in nature.

Wealth is counted by how large the herd of cattle is. Long ago Fulani tribes and clans used to fight over cattle and grazing rights.

Being the most treasured animal that the Fulanis herd, the cows are very special. Many people say that a person cannot speak Fulfulde if he does not own a cow.

The Fulani have a tradition of giving a habbanaya — a cow which is loaned to another until she calves. Once the calf is weaned it is retained and the cow is returned to its owner.

This habbanaya is a highly prized animal. Upon receipt of this gift, there is a special ceremony in honor of the gift. The recipient buys special treats and invites his neighbors for this event in which the habbanaya is given a name.

The habbanaya is never to be struck under any circumstance. Fulani nomads keep various species of cattle, but the zebu is the most common in the West African hinterland, due to its drought resistant traits.

In the wetter areas of Fouta Djallon and Casamance, the dwarf N'Dama is more common, as they are highly resistant to trypanosomiasis and other conditions directly associated with high humidity.

Subspecies of zebu include the White Fulani cattle , locally known as the Aku, Akuji, Bororoji, White Kano, Yakanaji or Bunaji, which are an important beef breed of cattle found throughout the area conquered by the Fulani people and beyond in the Sahel zone of Africa.

The widely accepted theory for the origin of present-day zebu cattle in West Africa is that they came from the westward spread of the early zebu populations in East Africa through the Sudan.

Other breeds of zebu are found mainly in the drier regions. Their body conformation resembles the zebu cattle of eastern Africa. The zebu did not appear in West Africa until about The origins and classification of the Fulani remains controversial; one school of thought is of the opinion that the Fulani cattle are truly long-horned zebus that first arrived in Africa from Asia on the east coast; these are believed to have been introduced into West Africa by Arab invaders during the seventh century, roughly about the same time that the short-horned zebus arrived into East Africa.

This theory is supported by the appearance of the skull as well as the thoracic hump of the Fulani cattle.

The subsequent successive introductions of the short-horned zebu are believed to have displaced most sanga cattle into southern Africa. During this period of constant movement of people and animals within Africa, some of these sanga cattle probably intermixed with the short-horned, thoracic-humped cattle to produce the thoracic-humped sanga.

The latter may have migrated, most probably along with the spread of Islam, westerly to constitute what are today the lyre-horned cattle of West and Central Africa, including the Fulani cattle.

Originally the White Fulani were indigenous to north Nigeria, southeast Niger and northeast Cameroon, owned by both Fulani and Hausa people.

They then spread to southern Chad and western Sudan. This annual festival is known in the local Fulfulde as the Dewgal. Since the founding of the village in , it has always been the most important Fulani festival.

It takes place on a Saturday in November or December; the day is carefully chosen based on the state of pastures and the water levels in the river Niger.

During the rainy season, the river swells, and the areas around the village are inundated in water, as the level of the river Niger rises, and turns Diafarabe into an island.

The cattle are kept on the lush fields up north or south, but when the West African Monsoon subsides and the drier season returns, the water level drops and the cattle can return home again.

The crossing is more than a search for pastures; it is also a competition to show craftsmanship as a herdsmen.

The cattle are driven into the river, and each herder, with no help from others, loudly encourages the animals to move forward as he stands or swims between them, holding on to the horns of the bulls.

The smaller animals don't have to swim, but are lifted into pirogues. When all the cattle are back, they are judged by a panel, which decides whose animals are the "fattest".

That herder is awarded "best caretaker", and he is awarded by the community. Besides being a competition of herdsmanship, it is also a social event; the herdsmen return after having been away for the most part of the year and they meet their family and friends again.

It is a time for celebration. The women decorate their house with woven mats and paint the floor with white and black clay, braid their hair with very intricate patterns, and dress up for their husbands and loved ones.

Impressed by the cultural significance attached to the annual event, UNESCO included it on its list of world cultural heritage events.

The Fula have a rich musical culture and play a variety of traditional instruments including drums, hoddu a plucked skin-covered lute similar to a banjo , and riti or riiti a one-string bowed instrument similar to a violin , in addition to vocal music.

It seems like nobody want to talk about them, besides in West Africa. The president Senghor, of Senegal, once said Guinea has the most beautiful women in Africa.

In particularly the Fulanis. Do you think that some people tend to be favorised in the society so that other groups like the Fulah are hidden away?

This is a highly respected people often very educated and noble, and people seem to concentrate only other parts of Africa. Which country in Africa has the most beautiful girls?

Why is Ethiopia, Somalia or Eritrea usually the answer? Upplagd av Maria kl. Guinea Beauties. Guinean beauties, none is mixed-raced. About the people.

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